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Some good historical examples of the ways that Black and African Americans have supported Asian and Asian American justice. And how working together can be more effective in challenging White supremacy.
Challenges Asian American marginalization and hghlights solidarity and intersectionality
QUOTE: There is something wrong with the way Americans think about who deserves social justice — as though attention to nonwhite groups, their histories and conditions, is only as pressing as the injuries that they have suffered. Racial justice is often couched in arcane, moralistic terms rather than understood as an ethical given in democratic participation. // It seems crazily naïve to suggest that we ought to learn, value and want to know about all of our countrymen out of respect rather than guilt
Addresses the triangulation of Asian Americans and Black people. Captures complexities that are so often missed. QUOTE: "Today in reaction to the series of attacks on our elders, many enraged Asians are calling for the immediate arrest of the perpetrators of violence while demanding the most punitive charges be made. 'Send a message,”'they say. And I have to wonder, 'Weren’t we just demanding we defund the police in solidarity with Black Lives Matter?'  //  When asked to support the amplification effort and denounce the heinous attacks on Asians, some Black people criticize the anti-Blackness still prevalent in the Asian community. 'Asians are anti-Black.' 'Asians never show up for us.' 'It’s Black History Month.' And to that I wonder, 'So will you watch us die?'  //  White supremacy wants us to remember the unhealed wounds we inflicted on each other, historical and ongoing anti-Blackness in the Asian community and anti-Asian incidents perpetrated by Black individuals, but not the stories of solidarity that have existed in equal measure, but are somehow left out of our history books and media coverage.
For decades, Americans have debated the place of Asians, Arabs, Latinx, indigenous people, and other interstitial minorities, and each community has waged its own battles over language."Addresses the history of "People of Color" as a term adopted by racially oppressed people in the US as a term of solidarity that"helped define a united front against those in power."  Describes the current move away from PoC and central reasons for this move--the desire to "capture the disproportionate per-capita harm to Blacks" and the ways that "PoC" is used to avoid addressing anti-Blackness: "The practical use of “people of color” has also devolved into “diversity” rhetoric, invoked by a white managerial class that may be willing to hire fair-skinned Latinx or Asian expats but not Black people."  Acknowledges these issues while also noting a fear that the central solidarity needed to address White supremacy could be eroded. Raises the question of how much language will matter, which raises the question for me of how and why that language is used.  
Helpful just to have multiple examples and connections to orgs and resources that facilitate action.
Provides good connections and analysis of anti-Blackness and the ways the constructed position of Asian Americans encourage passivity and using "invisibility" as protection. Oversimplifies (but that is so common, perhaps not remarkable).
Provides a good historical analysis of both solidarity connections and the ways that the rise of the model minority myth as a wedge with Black Americans, and also as "reinforc[ing] a structure in which assimilation into white society is the primary goal for other ethnic groups."Highlights both solidarity action with Black people and the need for AsAms to take back their own narrative.  
FROM THE ARTICLE: "[T[he success of people of color has brought with it a strong potential for misuse...In many spaces, the term functions now as performative fauxgressive politeness....people of color and its cousins have evolved from a compassionate shift in our linguistic paradigms to tools that people in positions of racial or other kinds of power can use to appear politically sensitive while doing little, if any, of the actual work of social justice.... It’s a term that, in many ways, still centers whiteness and suggests that anti-blackness doesn’t exist in Latino communities or that anti-immigrant sentiments don’t exist in black American ones."NOTE: Language can be important because it creates identities that foster or impede solidarity.  But language of resistance is continually co-opted to maintain the oppressive status quo. Discusses ways that "PoC" is used to obscure racial discrimination for specific radicalized groups.  
Several Asian American perspectives in response to the question "It seems that much of Asian American experience is erased or dismissed in the current dialogues involving race and social justice. How does this make you feel? And what organizing strategies do you have to counter this pervasive notion that Asians don't endure racism?"
FROM THE ARTICLE: "...how to “center anti-Blackness” in Asian American racial justice activism.Acknowledge the leadership of Black Lives Matter and use the political space and opportunity the movement has created – including the 24/7 media coverage that has finally changed the dominant news narratives about Black crime to one of crimes against Black bodies – to ask ourselves, how does this movement serve me and those like me, whether we be Asian or Latino, Native or white? And then make those connections and tell your story.Some tell me doing so 'de-centers anti-Blackness.' But 'centering anti-Blackness' requires us to tell the stories of the many oppressions that hold it in that central role, as the fulcrum of white supremacy, and of the many levers without which elites, who are the ultimate beneficiaries of white supremacy, cannot continue to use that fulcrum to continue to propel us toward racial dystopia."NOTES: Attempts to center White supremacy as the primary issue, discussing the importance of solidarity.  Discusses how one way to approach solidarity is to tell one's own Asian American story of oppression and resistance.
From 2017 but timely for the current 2020 moment. Similar to many of the current calls regarding AsAm buy-in to anti-Blackness and the need to resist the White ideal and understand how Black liberation is central to AsAm liberation.
Practical, concrete list of frequent actions of collusion with anti-Blackness. 
Webinar from the Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture, focused on AsAms navigating anti-Blackness.  Names many of the difficult dynamics within White supremacy, including triangulation and model minority myth issues.
FROM THE ARTICLE: This frame highlights the impact of history and systems/community level adaptations that produced the current day interracial dynamics we see within the #BlackLivesMatter movement. More specifically, we shed light on a shared history of solidarity, the intentional puppeteering of AAPIs to uphold White supremacy and maintain a divide between racialized oppressed communities, and the internalized racialized images that inhibit community coalition building
A resource list for AsAms seeking to understand racism and anti-Blackness. Sections on "What We Owe to Black Communities" and "Our History," plus sections for particular sub-populations (e.g. evangelical AsAms, specific ethnic groups) seem particularly strong and unique.
Vital distinction between ally and co-conspirator (accomplice, abolitionist): sharing the risk.
A pointed poem about the costs to BIPOC folx of holding space. Wih a great associated exercise for personal engagement and reflection. While these experiences are most common for BIPOC folks interacting with White people, I think that White supremacy invites BIPOC folks to collude in our own oppression, and that of other BIPOC and ethnic minorities, by enacting some of these towards each other.
Makes links between anti-Blackness and racism, holding the both/and and centering injustice
QUOTE: It’s time for us to collectively wake up. The American Dream will not save us. On the contrary, the pursuit of the ‘Dream’ feels as though it is leading to more harm than good….That’s why as a community, we can no longer afford to ignore the injustices experienced by Black people in this country. There is no equity in silence.NOTES: links also to calling out sexism and misogyny within AsAm/Hmong community that connects to internalized racism and anti-Blackness
NOTES: 1977 call for solidarity to resist oppression.  race, gender, sexuality, and class.  Over 40 years ago...what is our progress? QUOTE: ""The most general statement of our politics at the present time would be that we are actively committed to struggling against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression, and see as our particular task the development of integrated analysis and practice based upon the fact that the major systems of oppression are interlocking. The synthesis of these oppressions creates the conditions of our lives. As Black women we see Black feminism as the logical political movement to combat the manifold and simultaneous oppressions that all women of color face."
QUOTE:...the moral choices remain the same. Solidarity or complicity. Rise against abusive power or stand with our back turned to the abuse of power. If we as Asian Americans choose the latter, we are indeed the model minority, and we deserve both its privileges and its perils.  NOTES: Provides some good information to complicate an overaggregated view of AsAms as a homogenous group. Particularly strong in considering history of systemic anti-AsAm racism. Sometimes seems to buy in to oppression oympics both within AsAms and between AsAms and Blacks, but steps away from this by highlighting capitalistic exploitation and relation to racism.
Protests, teachins, events. AsAms organizing against anti-Blackness
Provides some good analysis of why many AsAms are complicit in anti-Blackness, and links to colonization. Argues for solidarity and offers examples. Complicates the understanding.
A call in to the AsAm community in Massachusetts. Offers a good example of a statement that works to do the both/and is more than words. Both/And: statement acknowledges and names the specific issue of anti-Blackness and related violence against Blacks while simultaneously acknowledging anti-Asian racism; it also highlights AsAm solidarity and connections with Black resistance and simultaneously acknowledge AsAm's ascribed privilege and triangulation within the White supremacist race hierarchy and the anti-Blackness within the AsAm community. Ends with an action-oriented commitment (what we will do different)--this could be a bit more specific, but is a good beginning.
Problemmatic pushback from within AsAms against the Mass AsAm Commissions BLM statement (see http://www.aacommission.org/statement-in-support-of-black-lives-matter/).  A good illustration of the ways that positioning one's own oppression centrally can support divide and conquer and deny ascribed racial privilege. Also illustrates really well the ways that understanding the context of White supremacy is central to deep understanding.  A question for folks who may agree with the position of this article: did the original statement inherently (and publically) divide the AsAm community, or did the pushback in this article do that?
QUOTE: "Asian Americans' privilege is an uncomfortable thing for us to consider, given the very hard journey our immigrant parents, grandparents or great-grandparents may have taken to carve out a place for us here, and the microaggressions (along with more explicit forms of racism) we still experience in our own lives.....[but] Asian Americans have a particular role to play as allies: We need to be loud. Because in the past, our silence has led to our being used as an example of a "good minority" that doesn't protest, a hardworking population that presents a counterfactual to the notion that America is racist, a magic eraser for 400 years of anti-blackness on this continent."
QUOTE: "It would be a massive missed opportunity if we fail to make the connection between the stories of Amy Cooper and Tou Thao and our daily behaviors. It’s easy to dismiss these as isolated incidents perpetuated by “racists” — but none of this is just one person’s racism coming to light and none of us is innocent.We all perpetuate anti-Black racism in our daily lives. We can’t fight anti-Black racism unless we can notice its manifestation in ourselves and others on a daily basis in our workplace, social interactions, and online engagement."
One of the best articles addressing need for AsAms to step up against anti-Blackness, with brief historical analysis emphasizing shared struggles and solidarity. Also recognizes relative privilege. Addresses also covid-19 response and racial inequity.
Awesome reading list of Black and Asian feminist solidarities. Hope!
Offers specific advice about approaching anti-Black racism with AsAm family members. Good but broad overview
QUOTE: "Before proceeding into this read, note that it is purposefully curt to highlight that non-black words about the Black Lives Matter movement are very not important right now. This is not a resource to learn about the BLM movement, it is one to explain why every Asian American should be involved in educating themselves and eventually becoming a part of the movement."
Letters for Black Lives 2020. A letter drafted for AsAms (and others) to share with their (older/immigrant) family members, explaining why BLM is vital. Translated into at least 30 different languages. "We began as a group of Asian Americans and Canadians writing an intergenerational letter to voice our concerns and support for the Black community. We have since grown to include other immigrant groups and communities of color. Our goal is to listen, support, and amplify the message of Black Lives Matter within our communities." See also the great conversation guide (https://docs.google.com/document/d/1B7PrxYC0H9ECtPmx4x3OQyOPLKaQS4xMYVNQ2jtDV7c/edit?source=post_page-----ed27ea67eb2e----------------------) that has terrific, specific guidance about how to have these conversations, responses to specific questions, current specific instances, debunking myths and much more.
QUOTE: "For many non-Black people, knowledge of what Black people have done for the world is scarce. We were raised in a system that deliberately downplays or omits the contributions of Black people...[But] Our solidarity should be unanimous and absolute, without an explanation about what Black people contributed to our communities. Solidarity is not a transaction. Compassion should not be given only when we receive something in return."NOTES: considers true meaning of solidarity, not as transaction.
Open google doc compiling posts and resources related to addressing anti-Blackness in AsAm community.
General call to non-Black PoC to step up within our communities to address anti-Black racism. Offers suggestions for steps to do this that mostly mirror general ally actions and suggestions.
Addresses history of tensions, ways that AsAms have perpetuated anti-Black racism and internalized this within our own community (e.g. through colorism), addresses dvide-and-conquer strategy, and offers examples of prior solidarity.
QUOTE: "a list of (mostly) films, videos, and television shows, curated to present the multifaceted ways in which Black and Vietnamese people have been represented in relation on-screen....It’s not an easy list to watch at times; There are many instances in our shared history fraught with violence from colonization, from military aggression, from xenophobia, from misogyny, and from antiblackness. I invite you to engage with this material from a place of learning. The point is not to agree with everything but to understand overall the different discourses that have existed in the media. I hope that our journey doesn't end here!"
QUOTE: "In places near the ocean where merchants sell live crabs, they display their wares in open barrels without tops. When the crabs try to escape by climbing up the sides of the barrel they always fail. As soon as one starts to climb up, the others who are also trying to escape pull it back down. When we try to overcome racism, sexism, homophobia, or class oppression, we often find ourselves in the position of crabs in a barrel. We work as hard as we can, but all our efforts fail to free us. We cannot get at the people who really have power, but we can reach someone from our own group or someone from another group no more powerful than our own. Instead of pulling ourselves up, we only pull someone else down. It is not hard to figure out why this happens. People with power want those they rule to be divided and to fight each other so they will not unite and fight side by side against their true enemy. If forced to make concessions to aggrieved groups, the powerful want the gains of one group to come at the expense of another, instead of acceding to a fundamental redistribution of resources and power. This “divide and conquer” strategy has been used more and more in recent years."
QUOTE: "In this essay, my main argument is that state-sanctioned violence, domestically and globally, as well as the geographic proximity of Black people and Asian Americans are motivating new iterations of Afro-Asian solidarity in the era of #blacklivesmatter. This article examines the complex history of Black and Asian American community formation in South Sacramento....South Sacramento’s settlement patterns involve a Southeast Asian refugee community...These are Asian Americans who have been differently racialized. To put it simply, they are not “model minorities.” Moreover, many carry with them explicit experiences of state-sanctioned violence and militarism. I turn to the narratives of local activists, community organizers, and artists to interrogate and better understand how they are working to actualize a new iteration of Afro- Asian solidarity in the era of #blacklivesmatter. This solidarity is directly informed by a shared experience with state-sanctioned violence, the dynamics of being in an urban environment, and of Black people and Southeast Asians being subjected to a similar racialization that often casts them as deviant. By foregrounding the narratives of Asian American activists across three generations – baby boomers, Generation X, and millennials – with differing approaches to solidarity building and activism, this work begins to illustrate emergent forms of Afro-Asian solidarities and their radical potential, underscoring contemporary modes of activism from a hyperlocal perspective.  Jeanelle K. Hope (2019) This Tree Needs Water!: A Case Study on the Radical Potential of Afro-Asian Solidarity in the Era of Black Lives Matter, Amerasia Journal, 45:2, 222-237, DOI: 10.1080/00447471.2019.1684807
ABSTRACT: This article was collectively written by four autonomous Asian American grassroots organizations inspired by the #Asians4BlackLives activist formation that emerged in the Bay Area at the end of 2014 in direct response to a call for solidarity by Black comrades through a crisscrossing constellation of Movement for Black Lives (M4BL) groups. In July 2018, one of the editors of this piece issued an open national call inviting radical Asian American groups working in solidarity with Black liberation and beyond to consider collectivizing our voices for a shared piece to submit. The anchoring commitment was to center active sites of struggle within the discourse of contemporary Asian American studies by profiling summary reflections from the ground... We brought [co-generated] these questions back to our local groups and curated summarized responses from our respective formations – all of which we have attempted to stitch together here. Within our groups and on these calls, we shared our political commitments, strategies that inform our ongoing organizing efforts, and key lessons learned based on the different sets of material, time, and space conditions within which all our groups are organizing.  We discussed the parallel and unique challenges that each locale faced, especially around capacity, internal development, contexts for Asian-Black relations, countering anti-Black racism within our communities, and solidarity building.  This article is a snapshot in time of what continues as an ongoing conversation, our own gesture of commitment to staying networked and building together as we also build within and beyond our formations.  May Fu, Simmy Makhijani, Anh-Thu Pham, Meejin Richart, Joanne Tien & Diane Wong (2019) #Asians4BlackLives: Notes from the Ground, Amerasia Journal, 45:2, 253-270, DOI: 10.1080/00447471.2019.1671158
Centers White dominance in considering how Blacks and Asians are pitted against each other and internalize negative views that foster White supremacy and social distance between minorities.  QUOTE: "By 2050, social scientists predict that racial minorities collectively will constitute more than half of the entire U.S. population (Bobo & Hutchings, 1996; Yancy, 2003). Complex interactions between minority groups are inevitable and raise questions about the relations between groups and groups’ members. In this chapter, we (a) integrate theory from political science and psychology to develop a model of “triangulated threat” for understanding Black and Asian relations outside of a Black–White paradigm, (b) review research on Blacks’ and Asians’ intergroup perceptions to support triangulated threat, (c) consider the implications of triangulated threat for social distance between Blacks and Asians, and (d) position triangulated threat within a context of White/European American dominance. Our chapter responds to recent calls in the literature for a paradigm shift in the ways in which we understand race relations (Alcoff, 2003; Perea, 1997). We offer “triangulated threat” as one model for community activists, theorists and researchers, and educators to move “beyond Black and White” in the ways in which they think, talk, teach, and write about race relations. Moreover, we position this model within a broader context of White/European American dominance, recognizing the ways in which the dominant White group’s constructions of racialized minority groups (i.e., the social constructions of the meanings of “Black” and “Asian”) promotes a “divide and conquer” strategy that maintains White power and privilege."
SFSJ "formation of progressive scholars committed to promoting and fighting for a political agenda that insists on justice for all, especially those most vulnerable. " Petitions, education, actions, organizing. kw organizations
Guidance for specific actions to resist anti-Blackness. General, not AsAm specific. Places to donate, reading lists, other resources.
2016 Liang case where an AsAm police killed a Black man. AsAm community divided with some calling it an "accident" and stating that Liang (officer) was scapegoated in sentencing,
List of specific things AsAms can do as allies, especially in moment of 2020 BLM
QUOTE: "Since immigration reform and the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s, increasing numbers of members of historically underrepresented groups (e.g. Blacks, Asians, Latino/as36) have been enrolling in higher educational institutions (NCES, 2005). Inter-minority dynamics (e.g., Black and Asian) are increasingly prevalent, particularly in urban educational contexts where minority group members are over-represented relative to suburban contexts (Kiang & Kaplan, 1994; Rosenbloom & Way, 2004). ...The purpose of this paper is to offer an intervention model for promoting positive race-relations between Black and Asian students on campus. Our model, by design, aims to attend to the unique power dynamics occurring in interactions between minority groups, and aims to encourage not only change in relations between group members, but also change at the institutional level.". kw: Black Asian relations
Discusses how the phrase "People of Color" has gone from fostering solidarity to problemmatic as used to maintain and avoid addressing the specificity of anti-Blackness. Provides important critical analysis but fails to address the issue of fostering solidarity and the ways that the problemmatic shift in meaning is, itself, part of White supremacy strategy.
article The BIPOC Project   60
kw: organization/movement
Discusses a broader consideration of "middlemen" minorities, including AsAms and Latinx and how they are used (and collude) to maintain Black oppression.
A reading group syllabus with a list of readings focused on Black experience and anti-Blackness with a relative emphasis on Asian-Black relations. The resources link has discussion prompts and powerpoint for sessions. kw: relations
ABSTRACT: Racism is often thought of as existing and operating at the interpersonal and institutional levels. One aspect of racism that has been relatively forgotten, however, is its internalized component: racism that exists and operates at the internalized level. Surprisingly, even psychology—the field that is arguably best equipped to study the internalized component of racism—seems to have lagged in investigating and addressing this construct. Thus, we conducted a systematic literature review of psychological work on internalized racial oppression to better understand what is currently known, what the recent surge in scholarship has contributed, and where the research and service gaps are in order to identify areas for future growth. Overall, psychological attention on internalized racism seems to be increasing, and there have been some exciting conceptual (e.g., cognitive behavioral conceptualization, moving toward “appropriated racial oppression”) and empirical (e.g., development of scales, correlates with mental health variables) developments. However, our review also revealed a need for more work that: (1) utilizes qualitative or mixed methods; (2) focuses on the experiences of different racial and ethnic groups; (3) investigates how internalized racism intersects with other forms of internalized oppression; (4) clarifies the connection of internalized racism with other theoretically similar phenomena; and (5) incorporates social justice and advocacy in clinical and community services to balance unequal power dynamics that perpetuate racism—the root cause of internalized racism. NOTES: important as a foundation for considering barriers to BIPOC acting as accomplices to each other
Non-Black people of color speaking out against anti-Blackness
article Coalition politics.   100
An important article that differentiates "home" from coalition.  Home being where you go for validation, support, belonging.  And coalition being where you foster coalition and solidarity.  Sometimes there might be connections.  But sometimes not.... FROM THE ARTICLE: [What happens when you let others in, others who are different is] "...it ain’t home no more. It is not a womb no more. And you can’t feel comfortable no more.  And what happens at that point has to do with trying to do too much in it...Coalition work is not work done in your home...And you shouldn’t look for comfort.  Some people will come to a coalition and they rate the success of the coalition on whether they feel good when they get there.  They’re not looking for a coalition; they’re looking for a home!...You don’t get fed a lot in a coalition.  In a coalition you have to give and it is different from your home.  You can’t stay there all the time.  You go to the coalition for a few hours and then you go back [home]...and coalesce some more.”
QUOTE: "Several experts expressed that this is a pivotal moment for Asian Americans to tackle the subject of anti-blackness in a productive way, beginning with unpacking the biases in their own communities by first confronting the historical context behind it." NOTE: provides brief analysis and history examples of Black-Asian relations in the context of White supremacy.
Directed at White people, but seriously worth reading as an AsAm or other PoC in relation to considering the difference between racism and anti-Blackness
A list providing peadings, films/videos and other resources to understand AsAm history and positionality and race relations.  
FROM PUBLISHER: The pioneering Asian American labor organizer and writer’s vision for intersectional and anti-racist activism.
FROM THE TOOLKIT: This toolkit is a project of love from the grassroots, from and by Asian American communities. As Asian Americans, we believe that our liberation is tied to Black liberation and we continue to dream about a world where all of our people will be free....One of the strategic problems that this toolkit seeks to address is the need to move beyond the politics of inclusion and representation, to address the structural roots of racism. Demographic change is being driven by non-Black people of color – primarily mixedrace people, Asians, and Latinos who for the most part, have not yet found their own language to connect race and white supremacy to the conditions of their lives. This leaves our communities vulnerable to racial wedge issues, and requires us to have courageous conversations about what anti-Black racism is and how it works. NOTES: Absolutely essential. An *amazing* resource providing guidance for trainings and a range of resources.  Deep, critical race analysis from on-the-ground activist orgs and thinking.
ABOUT: The Education for Liberation Network is a national coalition of teachers, community activists, researchers, youth and parents who believe a good education should teach people—particularly low-income youth and youth of color—how to understand and challenge the injustices their communities face. The network aims to help improve the practice of education for liberation by bringing people together to learn from each other’s experiences.
FROM THE ABSTRACT: …. Asian Americans and African Americans occupy different status positions on the U.S. racial hierarchy. Although their relative status positions are important factors to consider in understanding their evaluations and interactions with each other, the influence of racial psychological factors are also important to consider because they may influence how status is perceived. Thus, the current study investigated how racial socialization, racial identity, and racial stereotypes influence contact between Asian Americans and African Americans. U.S.-born Asian American (N = 190) and African American (N = 304) adults completed an online survey….Results from multivariate multiple regression analyses suggested that racial socialization, particularly exposure to racially diverse environments, was positively related to the frequency and quality of contact, as well as willingness to engage in future contact for both Asian Americans and African Americans; whereas race-related discussions was associated with African Americans’ endorsement of Asian stereotypes. In addition, the study showed that racial identity schemas partially mediated the relationship between racial socialization and intergroup contact, and the relationship between racial socialization and racial stereotypes. Finally, findings revealed that African Americans reported more willingness to engage in future contact with Asian Americans than Asian Americans reported with African Americans. Chen, M. (2016). NOTES: Dissertation-Boston College.
A history timeline focused on racism in the U.S. The default interactive mode combines points from all minority groups. You can access timelines for specific groups (Black, AsAms, Latinx, Indigenous Americans, MENA) through clicking the menu in the upper right corner, choosing "reference mode," clicking on the key icon to the left of the search box, and choosing the specific group. More specific timelines on Malcolm X, Harriet Tubman, Martin Luther King Jr., and other topics can be accessed at "pastkey.org"
ABSTRACT: This chapter will examine the experience of internalized oppression within the Asian American community. The chapter opens with a demographic overview that clarifies the breadth and diversity of the individuals that comprise the Asian American community. In order to provide a context for the roots of Asian Americans' experiences with internalized oppression, the chapter then examines the experiences of discrimination—both historical and contemporary—that have targeted Asian Americans. This section will then be followed by an overview of the common manifestations of internalized oppression that have been theoretically proposed and the mental health and behavioral implications that have been found in the empirical literature. Lastly, the chapter concludes with an introduction to the theoretical and applied literature that addresses the critical issue of how to challenge the internalization of one's oppression. In other words, how does one begin to challenge and shift how one perceives him/her-self and the oppression that targets both the individual and their community?  Millan, J. B., & Alvarez, A. N. (2014). Asian Americans and internalized oppression: Do we deserve this? In E. J. R. David (Ed.), Internalized oppression: The psychology of marginalized groups (p. 163–190). Springer Publishing Co.NOTES: important as a foundation for considering barriers to AsAms acting as accomplices to Black folx
  1. A link with a reason why it is memorable.